Lab 1.2.3 Mapping ISP Connectivity Using Traceroute
Background / Preparation
In this activity, you will use the Windows tracert utility to map Internet connectivity between your local ISP and the other ISPs that it uses to provide global Internet access. You will also map connectivity to the following major Regional Internet Registries (RIRs). However, your instructor may choose different destination websites.
- AfriNIC (African Network Information Centre) – Africa Region
- APNIC (Asia Pacific Network Information Centre) – Asia/Pacific Region
- ARIN (American Registry for Internet Numbers) – North America Region
- LACNIC (Regional Latin-American and Caribbean IP Address Registry) – Latin America and some Caribbean Islands
- RIPE NCC (Réseaux IP Européens) – Europe, the Middle East, and Central Asia
This activity can be done individually, in pairs, or in teams. It can be done as an in-class activity or as a homework assignment, depending on whether the classroom computers have access to the Internet. The following resources are required:
- Host computer with the Windows operating system
- Access to the command prompt
- Internet connection
- Routes Traced worksheet for each destination URL. The worksheet is attached to this lab. Each student completes their own worksheets and gives them to the instructor.
- Global Connectivity Map, which is attached at the end of this lab
- Access to the PC command prompt
Step 1: Run the tracert utility from a host computer
a. Verify that the host computer has a connection to the Internet.
b. Open a Command Prompt window by clicking Start > Run and typing cmd. Alternatively, you may click Start > All programs > Accessories > Command Prompt.
c. At the prompt, type tracert and your first destination website. The output should look similar to the following:
d. Save the tracert output in a text file as follows:
- Right-click the title bar of the Command Prompt window and choose Edit > Select All.
- Right-click the title bar of the Command Prompt window again and choose Edit > Copy.
- Open the Windows Notepad program: Start > All Programs > Accessories > Notepad.
- To paste the output into Notepad, choose Edit > Paste.Choose File > Save As and save the Notepad file to your desktop as tracert1.txt.
- Run tracert for each destination website and save the output in sequentially numbered files.
e. Run tracert from a different computer network, for example, from the public library or from a friend’s computer that accesses the Internet using a different ISP (for instance, cable instead of DSL). Save a copy of that output in Notepad and print it out for later reference.
Step 2: Interpret tracert outputs to determine ISP connectivity
Routes traced may go through many hops and a number of different ISPs depending on the size of your ISP and the location of the source and destination hosts. In the example output shown below, the tracert packets travel from the source PC to the local router default gateway to the ISPs Point of Presence (POP) router and then to an Internet Exchange Point (IXP). From there they pass through two Tier 2 ISP routers and then though several Tier 1 ISP routers as they move across the Internet backbone. When they leave the Tier 1 ISPs backbone, they move through another Tier 2 ISP on the way to the destination server at
a. Open the first traceroute output file and answer the following questions.
1. What is the IP address of your local POP router?
IP Address dari local POP Router adalah 192.168.190.
2. How many hops did the traceroute packet take on its journey from the host computer to the destination?
Pengambilan paket data selama proses pada tracert ada sebanyak 16 kali
3. How many different ISPs did the traceroute packet pass through on its journey from the host computer to the destination?
Jumlah tracert melewati isp yang berbeda untuk sampai ketujuan ada sebanyak 5 kali adapun alamat alamat tujuan.
- if-1-0-0-1980.mcore3.laa-losangeles.as6453.net [220.127.116.11]
- ix-10-0-0-0.tcore1.lvw-losangeles.as6453.net [18.104.22.168]
- if-10-0.core3.nto-newyork.as6453.net [22.214.171.124]
- if-7-0-0.core2.ad1-amsterdam.as6453.net [126.96.36.199]
- if-4-0.mcore3.njy-newark.as6453.net [188.8.131.52]
4. List the IP addresses and URLs of all the devices in the traceroute output in the order that they appear on the Routes Traced worksheet.
5. In the Network Owner column of the worksheet, identify which ISP owns each router. If the router belongs to your LAN, write “LAN”. The last two parts of the URL indicates the ISP name. For example, a router that has “sprint.net” in its URL belongs to the network of an ISP called Sprint.
6. Did the traceroute pass through an unidentified router between two ISPs? This might be an IXP. Run the whois command utility or whois function of a visual traceroute program to identify ownership of that router. Alternatively, go to http://www.arin.net/whois to determine to whom the IP is assigned.
b. Complete the worksheet using the traceroute output file for each of the other destination URLs.
c. Compare your results from the different traceroute output files. Did your ISP connect to different ISPs to reach different destinations?
Ya, pada kasus melakukan tracert ke http://whois.arin.net/ui isp nya masing masing protocol yang berbeda salaing terkoneksi untuk mencapai tujuan yaitu hit-nxdomain.opends.com [184.108.40.206]
Dan ISP yang berbeda untuk saling terkoneksi adalah
1. xe-1-0-0.r21.newthk02.hk.bb.gin.ntt.net [220.127.116.11]
2. p64-4-1-1.r21.tokyjp01.jp.bb.gin.ntt.net [18.104.22.168]
3. as-0.r21.Isanca03.us.bb.gin.ntt.net [22.214.171.124]
d. If you ran a traceroute from a different computer network, check the output for that traceroute file as well. Was the number of hops different to reach the same destination from different local ISPs? Which ISP was able to reach the destination in fewer hops?
Jumlah HOP untuk mencapai destination pada sebuah alamat tracert yang dituju akan tetap sama. Meskipun telah dilakukan beberapa kali test tracert akan memunculkan jumlah list hop yang sama. Maka ISP yang membutuhkan sedikit hop untuk mencapai tujuannya adalah ISP B (cable service provider)
Step 3: Map the connectivity of your ISP
a. For each traceroute output, draw a diagram on a separate sheet of paper showing how your local ISP interconnects with other ISPs to reach the destination URL, as follows:
1. Show all of the devices in sequence from the LAN router to the destination website server. Label all of the devices with their IP addresses.
2. Draw a box around the local POP router that you identified, and label the box “POP”.
3. Draw an ISP cloud around all the routers that belong to each ISP, and label the cloud with the ISP name.
4. Draw a box around any IXP routers that you identified, and label the box “IXP”.
b. Use the Global Connectivity Map to create a combined drawing showing only ISP clouds and IXP boxes.
Worksheet for Routes Traced
Destination URL: http://www.ripe.net [126.96.36.199] Total Number of Hops: 16
|Router IP Address||Router URL (if any)||Network Owner
(LAN, Name of ISP or IXP)